Project Description

Main goal

The main purpose of this training module is to introduce you to some of the main aspects до the management of catering and entertainment establishments (CEE) offering non-domestic catering services. The training module is specially developed, focusing on the basic theoretical and practical skills needed by anyone considering starting their own business in the field of catering (cafe-aperitif, fast food, pastry bakery, restaurant, pizzeria, bistro, pavilion, beer pub, cafe, doner, cafe-patisserie, cocktail-bar, lobby-bar, snack-bar, etc.). The aim is to stimulate your interest in the topic in order to continue your further research and training in the field of management and organization of activities in non-domestic catering.

The training module is structured in six separate topics, covering six main aspects of the food management process in the field of catering. Each topic is divided into separate sub-topics that are related to a specific aspect. The time required to read and get acquainted with a topic varies from 30 to 60 minutes. At the end of the training module, participants will have the opportunity to test their knowledge of the presented topics through a self-assessment test. In addition, links to additional literature and training resources are included at the end of each topic.

Each participant, based on their own specific needs, can choose the most appropriate way of learning by choosing the most relevant topics for them.


The individual self-training module of Food and Drinks Management has a total duration of 5 hours (300 minutes), including the time for introduction to the presented additional resources for the module topics.

Course content

Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4
Introduction to the food and drinks management Supply of food and drinks Technological equipment for CEE Personnel of catering establishments
Topic 5 Topic 6
Food management – control procedures in the process of food production and supply Organization and technology of service at CEEs

Up to date Curriculum

The main purpose of this training module is to introduce you to some of the main aspects до the management of catering and entertainment establishments (CEE) offering non-domestic catering services. The training module is specially developed, focusing on the basic theoretical and practical skills needed by anyone considering starting their own business in the field of catering (cafe-aperitif, fast food, pastry bakery, restaurant, pizzeria, bistro, pavilion, beer pub, cafe, doner, cafe-patisserie, cocktail-bar, lobby-bar, snack-bar, etc.). The aim is to stimulate your interest in the topic in order to continue your further research and training in the field of management and organization of activities in non-domestic catering.

The training module is structured in six separate topics, covering six main aspects of the food management process in the field of catering. Each topic is divided into separate sub-topics that are related to a specific aspect. The time required to read and get acquainted with a topic varies from 30 to 60 minutes. At the end of the training module, participants will have the opportunity to test their knowledge of the presented topics through a self-assessment test. In addition, links to additional literature and training resources are included at the end of each topic.


According to the definition published in the largest online information resource Wikipedia, nutrition is a basic life process related to the reception, processing and assimilation of food from the environment, necessary for building and renewing cells and tissues, implementation and regulation of vital functions, as well as compensating for the energy consumed by it.

Almost all types of food are of plant or animal origin. Cereals are the main food, providing more of nutritional energy than all other crops worldwide. Wheat, corn and rice – in all their forms – make up 87% of all cereals in the world.

The most important for nutrition are the products that contain the optimal amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, fats and minerals. Such are milk, meat, fish, eggs and their products, caviar, fruits, vegetables, etc. Nutrition includes the following processes: food intake, processing (digestion), absorption, metabolism and storage of energy and nutrients.

Nutrition substances

Nutrition substances are the nutritional components that make up food. Without nutrients, the human body cannot function optimally. Some nutrients, called essentials, are needed for the body to function properly. Nutrients play a major role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Although good health requires a sufficient supply of essential nutrients, there are other factors that can contribute to various diseases, including genetics, age, air and water pollution, allergies, stress and more. Consumption of sufficient amounts of essential nutrients from natural sources significantly reduces the risk of developing a number of diseases that are not a result of genetic abnormalities and environmental influences.

Nutrients include vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, fats, proteins, carbohydrates and water.

Food products are foods obtained from the processing of basic food sources. For processing see below. These include all types of pastries, including confectionery, dishes, pastries, including all pasta, stews, creams, mousses and more.

The main types of nutrition are divided into five basic groups presented on Figure 1.

Figure 1: Types of nutrition

Rational nutrition – this is the science-based nutrition of a healthy person. The rational or the so-called healthy eating should not be confused with diet (or prophylactic), which is a variant of rational nutrition, but with a certain imbalance, increasing or decreasing the intake of a certain group of nutrients, as applied by people with specific professions (athletes, mannequins, aviators and astronauts, etc.).

Balanced nutrition – similar to a rational regime but associated with greater freedom of personal choice, observing individual views of proportions and combinations, to a moderate intake of a variety of foods. The most common way of traditional eating is in this direction, referring mainly to cultural habits, taste preferences, social status and other factors that determine individual habits and diets.

Diet nutrition – also called curative, is a type of regime that is used by a person with a health problem. An example of such a diet is the ‘separated’ regime, which does not mix carbohydrates with proteins and sour fruits during the same meal. Increasingly, this type of diet is practiced as part of a healthy diet.

Prophylactic nutrition – applied to keep the health of people working in an environment with certain professional risks.

Unbalanced nutrition – with this type of eating, an excessive quantity of one or more foods dominates the other food ingredients. Unbalanced nutrition leads to a number of health problems. Unbalanced nutrition is related to the so-called metabolite syndrome, which includes over-weight in combination with other diseases. The metabolite syndrome affects between 25 and 30% of the people globally, and this percentage is constantly growing.

Healthy nutrition

Why do we focus on it? In addition to regular physical activity, a key aspect of maintaining our shape and figure is the healthy eating. There is a lot of information available on the Internet about following different diets, as well as specialized healthy eating programs developed by doctors, nutritionists and fitness instructors. However, many people apparently still have difficulty eating regularly and healthily and maintaining a balanced diet on a daily basis. Catering establishments play a special role in this process.

There is a certain stigma associated with the term “healthy eating”. Many people associate it with not being able to eat the things they like. However, successful and sustainable healthy eating practices are not based on strict dietary restrictions or avoiding the foods you love. On the contrary, it is based on the desire to be healthy, to increase our energy and to increase our energy, thus feeling better in our own body.

The contradictory advice regarding the keeping of a diet and eating are another obstacle to many people. Should you do the food pyramid or juice diet? Do you have to count the calories of the foods and drinks you consume? Are there fruits that are harmful to you? It seems that every diet and fitness expert have an opinion backed by science and facts. This is why many people get confused or give up before trying to find an effective healthy eating plan. However, keeping a healthy diet and lifestyle is easy and achievable with the right motivation. Healthy eating includes regular eating and a balanced diet that provides you with the nutrients you need to maintain health, energy and a sense of comfort. The key to healthy eating is eliminating most processed foods you eat and replacing them with natural products (such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, etc.).

Ideally, a healthy diet includes foods from the main groups, namely proteins, carbohydrates and vegetables, as well as water, vitamins, minerals, fiber and fats.

Which are they? Below we present some of the main groups of foods:

  1. Proteins

Proteins provide the body with nutrients that help its recovery and maintenance. They play an essential role in providing energy, maintaining cognitive functions and stabilizing the mood. The main sources of protein are animal products such as beef, poultry, fish and cheese; and plants such as beans, nuts and a number of legumes.

  1. Carbohydrates

he main source of energy for the human body is carbohydrates. They are processed into sugar, known as glucose, which nourishes many bodily functions. Nutritionists recommend that up to 55% of an adult’s daily caloric intake come from carbohydrates. However, consuming too many carbohydrates leads to obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Plant-based carbohydrates are usually the best type of carbohydrate. They are found in vegetables, whole grains, legumes and fruits.

  1. Fibers

Every diet and a healthy nutrition plan include foods that have a high percentage of dietic fibers. These are vegetables, grains, nuts and fruits. A high-fiber diet reduces the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Healthy eating experts recommend consuming at least 40 grams of fibers daily.

  1. Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins are essential for a large number of chemical reactions occurring in the human body. Because the human body cannot produce these vitamins, they can be obtained through food. Like vitamins, minerals cannot be produced by humans. The main minerals include iron, calcium and potassium, copper, zinc and selenium.

  1. Fats

The human body requires fat to perform some of the basic functions, such as metabolism. However, excess fat intake can lead to obesity, high cholesterol and heart disease. There are four different essential fats present in different foods.

Trans-fats: Trans fats are found in dairy products and some fatty meats. However, the most common source of trans fats today is from artificially processed foods and pastries. This type of fat is particularly unhealthy and is associated with a higher risk of heart disease.

Monounsaturated fats: These are fats present in plant sources, such as nuts and vegetable oils from avocados, olives, sunflower seeds, saffron and canola.

Saturated fats:These fats can be found in meat, cheese, whole milk and butter.They are also present in coconut and palm oils.

Polyunsaturated fats: Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids fall into this category. Omega-3 is usually found in fish, flaxseed, walnuts, soybean oil and canola oil. Omega-6 is present in corn oil, soybean oil and saffron oil.

  1. Water

Water does not contain any nutrients, but is one of the most important components of any diet. Water is essential for the normal functioning of cells and other functions of the human body.

Sources and additional resources on the topic:

  • Davidson, Alan. The Oxford Companion to Food. 2nd ed. UK: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Farr, Sarah. Healing Herbal Teas: Learn to Blend 101 Specially Formulated Teas for Stress Management, Common Ailments, Seasonal Health, and Immune Support. Storey Publishing, 2016. ISBN 9781612125749. (in English)

Materials and articles from Internet:


Historical development of nutrition

According to historians, eating outside the home dates back to ancient times. Street vendors and cooking in public places were very popular in ancient Rome. Medieval travelers dined in inns, pubs, guest houses and hostels. Colonial America continued this tradition in the form of inns (so-called Publick houses). The restaurant as we know it today originated during the French Revolution. The modern supply and serving of food is a product of the industrial revolution. Development of technology has made the mass production of food possible, as well as the rapid distribution of goods, the safer and more efficient storage and preparation of food. Technological developments in transport (trains, cars, trucks) have also created a huge demand for public places to eat.

People eat out of their homes not only to satisfy their hunger, but also to emphasize a certain self-confidence and demonstrate self-esteem, self-confidence and a certain prestige.

Catering and entertainment establishments (CEEs) have become an accepted way of life and we tend to see them as relatively recent innovations. However, they have their roots in the habits and customs that characterized our civilization and predate the Middle Ages. The etymology of the term restaurant is from the Latin word “restaurans” and means “he who restores”. We regain strength through the culinary products and drinks we consume.

From the classic bar to the gourmet restaurant offering culinary delights, the food industry is extremely diverse. This wide and varied landscape can be divided into several more homogeneous categories. However, the main distinguishing feature between different food service providers is the presence of a commercial element. All of them are discussed in detail in Training Module 2. However, here we have separated two main categories that are related to the topic of this module.

Commercial sites offering non-domestic catering services

Leading providers of non-domestic catering services, from fast food restaurants to gourmet restaurants, fall into the most popular and widespread categories of commercial sites offering catering services. Also called “market-oriented food services”, this category accounts for the largest volume of income in the field of non-domestic meals. A whole range of segments, from mobile dining establishments located in specially adapted vehicles to nightclubs, they all fall into this category. But for the most part, commercial catering sites are divided almost equally between fast food establishments, which are most often self-serviced, and others, which provide different levels of service.

Non-commercial sites offering non-domestic catering services

Non-commercial catering establishments offer food and beverages mainly in addition to their basic services or for non-profit reasons. For example, it is difficult to imagine a fully functioning hospital without food delivered to patients or without a café for staff and visitors. Or how could you sell long-distance plane tickets without being able to offer food and drink while traveling? These are just a few examples of non-commercial catering establishments that occupy a significantly smaller market share than the commercial ones.

Sources and additional resources on the topic:

  • Restaurant and hotel management, First edition, 2007, Prof. Manol Ribov, Assist. Prof. Dr. Maria Stankova, Dr. Preslav Dimitrov, Lyubomira Grachka, Trakia-M Publishing House, Sofia, 2007
  • Ribov, М., Competition and competitiveness of the tourist product. Stopanstvo University Publishing House, S., 1997.

Materials and articles from Internet:

Modern trends and cultural differences in catering

The modern consumer is looking for food, drink and dietary solutions to help them achieve their individual goals in the field of nutrition and healthy lifestyle faster and more effectively.

The modern trends in catering follow those related to the healthy lifestyle, globalization and the development of international tourism (incl. culinary tourism).

The consumption of high-quality, nutritious foods and drinks comes second after the consumption of delicious foods. The interest towards the so-called healthy foods and ingredients is also growing and making way for the market realization of the so-called superfoods and high-tech nutrition ingredients.

At the same time, healthy eating aims to find the right balance between reducing what consumers perceive as ‘harmful’ nutrients (e.g. sugar, sodium or carbohydrates) and increasing what they consider to be ‘useful’ (e.g. fiber and protein). Many modern researchers and people working in the food industry call healthy eating the “new religion” of modern society and the younger generations. In Bulgaria, this trend is most prevalent among the population aged between 25 and 44, with education and incomes above average, and living mainly in large cities. For example, 60% of the consumption of organic products in the country is concentrated in Sofia and cities with a population of over 100,000 people.

In terms of the social dimension of nutrition, more and more people around the world are defining eating with family and friends, or consuming food in the so-called “Social environment”, an increasingly important component in achieving a healthy diet and lifestyle.

Another trend in the consumption of food and beverages is related to their origin and method of production. This means that food and beverages must be produced ethically and sustainably. This trend is extremely visible in Western societies and developed countries, where the concept of sustainable living is very popular. Therefore, consumers also require certain actions from producers to address important sustainability issues, such as waste management, environmental pollution and climate change. In this regard, food certification has an increasing role in determining consumer demand, such as the Rainforest Alliance, the lack of GMO additives, animal welfare, carbon neutrality, etc.

The eating habits that dominate the different parts of the world depend mainly on living conditions (climate and geographical location), religion and traditions, as well as the economic status of the population. The above modern trends in nutrition are typical of Western societies and developed countries.

Climate and geographical location also affect people’s eating habits. For residents of cold areas, high-fat foods are necessary because they form a layer of fat in the body that insulates from the cold. In the temperate climate zone, high-calorie foods are used, and in tropical countries, sweating and strong spices accelerate the process of excretion of water from the body and increase thirst in order to maintain water balance.

Culture and religion also play a very important role. Different religions have different eating habits. The eating habits of Hindu culture are largely based on religion and tradition. A diet rich in vegetables without red meat and pork in general comes from the Hindu religion. Islamic traditions are associated with slow eating, and one must be sitting on the ground, as this is the best way to feel when one is already full. The use of gold or silver utensils is forbidden when serving the various dishes, because it is considered a waste and a manifestation of bad taste, and so are alcoholic beverages, pork, all foods from predators or those that contain blood, as well as stolen food. Christianity is relatively liberal about food consumption, but emphasizes fasting. Lent is a time when Christians abstain from certain foods. Judaism requires that milk and meat be stored in separate containers. They should not be mixed when cooking or eating

Sources and additional resources on the topic:

  • Restaurant and hotel management, First edition, 2007, Prof. Manol Ribov, Assist. Prof. Dr. Maria Stankova, Dr. Preslav Dimitrov, Lyubomira Grachka, Trakia-M Publishing House, Sofia, 2007

Materials and articles from Internet:


Supply of food and drinks – organization of the supply activity

An important condition for the normal course of the process of food production and supply is the continuous provision of the necessary funds and raw materials.

Depending on the capacity and specificity of the particular site, especially when it comes to a smaller catering establishment, the purchase / supply of food may be the responsibility of the manager and / or the chef. In larger establishments, in addition to the manager and the cook, additional staff may be appointed – supplier, host, responsible person for deliveries and warehousing, etc.

Why is the supply of foodstuffs so important? The purchase of food and beverages that meet the quality requirements and the specifics of the menu of the respective site is one of the biggest challenges for owners and managers. There are various technical and economic aspects of the food supply process.

The technical aspects are related to the need for the necessary raw materials (food and beverages and products needed for their preparation) to be available in the appropriate quantities and quality at a certain time (or deadline) and in a specific place (warehouse, commercial premise or any other). In addition, it is important to keep the amount of waste to a minimum.

The economic aspect is related to the necessary funds for the process of purchasing and transporting food, beverages and products needed for their storage. It is very important to consider all this with the specific type of restaurant you manage or work in. The different types of CEE are discussed in Training Module 2: Restaurant Management.

Main principles and activities

For the successful functioning, development and growing of a business offering non-domestic catering services, it is necessary that you keep some of the main rules in the process of raw materials and goods supply listed below on Figure 2.

Figure 2: Main principles when buying products and raw materials for the needs of CEE

Practice has shown that each restaurant or another catering establishment uses standard recipes that correspond to the menu, and each recipe has exactly or approximately certain amounts of raw materials, losses due to processing (primary or thermal), as well as the possibility of replacement.

It is very important, especially in cases where the specifics and objectives of the food establishment require it, not to make compromises with the quality of a product or raw material at the expense of its price. For example, when ready-to-eat foods are advertised and offered to the customers as organic, homemade, healthy, “from the local farm”, etc.

In this regard, it is good for any owner or potential entrepreneur who aims to offer or develop a business in the field of organic and / or healthy foods to get acquainted with the so-called “Short food supply chains” or SFSC.

What is SFSC? This is a term that describes the variety of traditional and / or alternative ways of producing, distributing, retailing food and other agricultural products, such as farmers’ markets, on-farm sales, online orders, consumer cooperatives, and more[1]. These so-called short chains are of particular interest to small and family farms, interested consumers, local communities and civil society organizations. There are a number of advantages to using this type of supply, especially for themed and boutique restaurants, which are becoming increasingly popular and enjoy great interest from different types of customers, such as tourists, young people practicing healthy lifestyles, athletes, people appreciating the local community and its development, culinary enthusiasts, etc. More generally speaking, a food supply chain can be defined as “short” when it is characterized by a short distance or a reduced number of intermediaries between producers and consumers that can best be reduced to zero.

More information about this type of supplies and their benefits may be found HERE[2].

Going back to the topic of ensuring a well-coordinated process of food supply, when securing food products and raw materials for the needs of CEE, it is necessary to pay attention to the following main criteria when choosing a supplier / supplier:

  • The prices of the offered products;
  • Terms of delivery;
  • The quality of food and goods;
  • Available and implemented quality control and management systems.

According to the established good practices in the supply of foods and food products for the needs of CEE, non-durable products (fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat, fish, poultry products) are bought in small quantities in order to be sold in a relatively short time. On the other hand, in order to achieve a better price and greater trade discounts, frozen, bottled, canned, dry foods with a longer life are bought in larger quantities.

Table 1 presents the various potential risks and basic principles, established according to the good practices that should be observed in the process of purchasing food products and raw materials for the needs of the CEE.

Table 1: Main principles in the process of supply

Dangers v Raw materials infected with:

–        pathogenic bacteria / toxins /;

–        chemical substances /pesticides/;

–       alien physical bodies /glass, metal, timber/.

Preventive measures v  Buying from reliable suppliers;

v  Monitoring of the temperature of the raw materials upon delivery;

v  Selection of the least dangerous ingredients.

Control limits v  Products bought from reliable and approved suppliers;

v  Monitoring the quality of products and their safety, incl. the temperature of the raw materials upon delivery (cooled – up to 4°С, frozen – from -10 °С to -18°С/.

Monitoring procedures v  Check suppliers’ documentation to make sure they follow rules and regulations;

v  Inspect the suppliers’ premises;

v  Inform them of any customers’ complaints.

Corrective actions v  Avoid deliveries from illegal, unqualified or questionable suppliers.
Documentation v  Documents from approved suppliers;

v  Delivery forms;

v  Certificates.

To ensure the economic efficiency of the supply process, it must be carefully controlled and monitored by inspecting the ordered quantities, delivery times, quality and other specific parameters, given the specifics of the commercial site offering non-domestic catering. In the process of supplying food and food products for the needs of catering establishments, there are two main phases, which are described in Table 2. They have different sub-stages, which constitute the overall supply process.

Table 2: Stages of the supply process

Phase Stages
Planning phase Supply instruments
Supply principles
Need of materials
Setting the volume of the delivery
Setting the moment of delivery
Delivery phase Collecting offers from suppliers / contractors
Checking offers
Selecting from the presented offers

Suppliers of food and drinks

Where to start if you do not have the experience and a ready list of reliable suppliers and sources? How to make sure you get the best price for the best ingredients? In the following lines we present some practical tips for the proper organization of the process of supplying your restaurant. We will look at the types of restaurant food suppliers you need, depending on your concept, and we will focus briefly on the specifics of the respective supply chain.

Here’s what you need to know about the main food and product delivery channels for CEE and how they work as separate systems.

Traders and wholesale food suppliers

These are the big food chains where you can find everything in one place – meat products, food and beverages, bakery and confectionery, dairy products, fruits and vegetables, desserts and more. They all work in bulk with a wide network of domestic and foreign manufacturers to support a huge variety of goods. You can buy the products mainly on the spot, but there are also large chains that offer supplies. However, depending on the concept of your CEE, it is always good to personally make sure of the quality of the food and products you will buy.


  • Huge choice;
  • All in one place;
  • Low prices and chances of discounts.


  • Lack of personal attitude;
  • No specialization and assortment;
  • Not all products are fresh.


Catering establishments that operate on a farm-to-table basis (also called ‘farm to fork’) mainly select individual farmers / producers as suppliers or purchase their products from a farmers’ cooperative. Another popular way to procure food and products for the needs of the CEE is by visiting the so-called farmers’ markets, which are gaining popularity not only in small towns but also in large cities. Farmers’ markets offer authentic Bulgarian agricultural and organic products. As a result, their numbers are growing, although not at the rate at which they are in other European countries. This type of relationship is the basis of the so-called SFSC, which we discussed above


  • Fresh products;
  • Authentic products;
  • Building connections with the community and supporting small producers;
  • Suitable for seasonal menus;
  • Direct relation with the producer which can help to negotiate discounts and regular deliveries;
  • You may learn more about the way of production from the very producers and include this in the marketing of your CEE.


  • Higher prices;
  • Mostly local goods;
  • More time for selection and shopping;
  • They take place only in certain days of the week.

Suppliers of biological foods and products

The suppliers of the so-called organic products are diverse – from large wholesalers with national coverage – to small producers and local farms. Organic farming uses fewer chemicals and artificial compounds that are known to pollute water sources. Organic animal-breeding does not use antibiotics in the process of feeding the animals and is usually kept in an environment that resembles more their natural habitat. They are mainly used by CEEs whose concept and philosophy (at the level of menu and marketing) is based on healthy eating and environmental protection.


  • Natural products with care for the environment;
  • Fresh products and ingredients;
  • You may learn more about food (see above).


  • Higher prices;
  • Seasonal limitations;
  • Shorter duration and use terms of certain products.

Local meat shops

Just like working with local farmers and shopping in local markets, you can count on the local butcher to supply fresh meat, giving you information about its origin. Butchers work with breeders with whom they have built long-term relationships, and who can guide you exactly to the required quantities for different needs or for special events.


  • Always fresh products;
  • Building trust and long-term relationships which can contribute to negotiation of discounts and regular deliveries;
  • You may learn more about the origin of mean and products, as well as the way of preparation.


  • Higher prices;
  • Daily limitations of the quantities;
  • Additional time for shopping

Suppliers of alcoholic beverages (beer and wines)

The suppliers of alcoholic beverages are many and varied, from representatives of large companies to local craft breweries and small wineries. The range and type of alcoholic beverages you offer in your CEE will again depend on the concept and menu you offer. For example, if you own a place that will be known for its choice of craft beer, you will need to work with multiple breweries to offer a variety to your customers. If you are a family restaurant that only needs two or three menu options, you will probably want to work with larger national brands that offer lower prices. If you are betting on wines, it is good to hire a sommelier (permanent or part-time) to help you choose the wines for the menu you offer. Always rely on local wines, thus contributing to the development of the local community and economy. In addition, especially when it comes to tourists, they will always want to try local wines and drinks.

It is important to know that suppliers of alcoholic (and non-alcoholic products) offer free advertising materials (cups, utensils, equipment, awnings, umbrellas, menu), as well as cash bonuses for the sale of certain quantities.

Work with suppliers of foodstuffs and drinks

Now, after you got introduced to the main types of food and drinks suppliers for the needs of the CEE, here is some advice from the practice which you can use in working with them.

Advice 1: Start with one or maximum two permanent suppliers.

Your goal is to have fewer different suppliers. Avoid complicating your business unnecessarily, especially if your concept allows you to work with only one provider. Working with fewer suppliers definitely helps maintain a constant quality of the dishes on offer. In this regard, it is good to present to the supplier or manufacturer your requirements for the quality of food and goods.

Advice 2: Find three to five offers for each service.

This way you will have a more accurate idea of the prices, without being piled in paperwork and too many offers. Start small to big: get offers from small businesses before bigger ones. Larger companies are in a better position to negotiate prices, so you will want to use prices from smaller companies as a leverage to achieve a better price.

Advice 3: Set short deadlines for the selection of a supplier

In most cases, the recommended time to choose a supplier is no more than a month. Collecting offers, negotiating and signing contracts need to happen quickly so that you can focus as much as possible on the essence of your business, namely the provision of the non-domestic catering service.

Advice 4: Build relationships

Especially if you have decided to work with smaller suppliers, you need to build trust. Visit farmers’ markets when you know your suppliers / producers will be there and talk to them about prices, origin, quality. When they are convinced that you are passionate about what you do, they may be more willing to give you bigger discounts and also recommend you to other manufacturers and customers.

Rule No.1 in negotiating? Never ever sign with the first supplier you have received and offer from, until you collect at least several different ones. Don’t be afraid to bargain with your supplier if you find competitors with lower prices. It is completely normal for you to tell them the names and prices of the competitors.

Storage of food and drinks

The process of foodstuffs supply for the needs of CEE ends at the storage rooms.

Process of storage

What is important to know about the process of food storage and the premises in which it takes place? First of all, food products are stored in refrigerated or non-refrigerated warehouses, which must be furnished in accordance with regulatory requirements. They must be clean, dry, ventilated, without direct sunlight, without access to light. One of the most important requirements and prerequisites for the proper storage of goods and avoidance of unwanted problems is regular hygiene and prevention from pests (rodents, insects).

What, where and how to store? Here are some basic recommendations to take into account!

  • Dry products, vegetable oils and canned foods are stored in uncooled storage rooms with air temperature in the range 0-20° С and relative humidity of 75%.
  • Spices, coffee and other products with a strong aroma are stored separately.
  • When storing vegetables and fruits, you need dark, cool, dry storage areas, under conditions that do not allow contamination, freezing, germination or rotting. Fruits and vegetables packed in plastic bags should be unpacked before storage to avoid condensation and mold growth.
  • Bread and pasta are stored at room temperature, separate from other types of food, in closed cabinets providing protection against insects, rodents, mechanical and chemical contaminants.
  • Raw meat, poultry, fish and seafood, milk and dairy products, eggs, sausages and meat products, confectionery, finished culinary products are stored in refrigeration facilities.
  • At -18 ° C in low-temperature refrigerators or chambers they store frozen meat, poultry, fish or semi-finished products, ready or semi-finished frozen foods, frozen vegetables, frozen desserts, ice cream.
  • Heat-treated foods must be cooled down to at least 15 ° C before being refrigerated.

Table 3 provides useful information on the recommended storage periods for fresh and frozen food to take into account in the process of planning and managing delivery and storage:

Product Temp. Deadline Product Temp. Deadline
Beef -18° to -25°С 12 months Semi-ready meat -2° to +4°С 36 -48 hrs
Lamb and veal -18° to -25°С 9 months Semi-ready minced meat products -2° to +4°С 36 hrs
Pork -18° to -25°С 6 months Semi-ready meat with added spices and products -2° to +4°С 24 hrs
Minced meat, sausages, sub-products -18° to -25°С 3 months Semi-ready meat with added eggs as filling -2° to +4°С 6 hrs
Pate -18° to -25°С 1 month Sub-products -2° to +4°С 36 hrs
Poultry -18° to -25°С 12 months Semi-ready sub-products, for thermal processing -2° to +2°С 12 hrs
Duck and game -18° to -25°С 6 months Sausages -2° to +4°С As shown on the package
Poultry sub-products -18° to -25°С 3 months Milk -2° to +4°С As shown on the package
White fish -18° to -25°С 6 months Freshly caught fish In ice 24 hrs
Fat fish -18° to -25°С 3 months Cleaned fish -2° to +4°С 48 hrs
Sea food -18° to -25°С 2 months Potatoes sliced in water 0° to +4°С 8 hrs
Bread and cakes -18° to -25°С 6 months Sliced vegetables 0° to +4°С 4-6 hrs
Fruits -18° to -25°С 12 months Mayonnaise, cold sauces -2° to +4°С 12 hrs
Vegetables -18° to -25°С 9 months Eggs 0° to +4°С 14 days
Ice cream -18° to -25°С 3 months Confectionery -2° to +4°С 36 hrs

Equipment and storage devices

It is important to specify that, according to good practices in the industry, the different food groups are stored and displayed separately at the appropriate place in the warehouse and the relevant specialized area (shelves, refrigerators, freezers), according to the requirements of the relevant control authority. The rooms for storage of dry products are furnished with shelves, racks, wooden grills and cabinets. For this purpose, the necessary organization must be created and food must not be stored outside the warehouses and facilities.

Following the good practices, Table 3 presents tips and sample activities regarding the storage of products in different rooms / storage devices.

It is very important that ready foods are stored separately from raw and semi-finished products at temperatures corresponding to manufacturer’s instructions. Here are more tips on what to look for in the storage process.

Table 3: Analysis of the risks and advice on monitoring and control

Warehouse Fridge Freezer
Possible danger Reproduction of pathogenic bacteria, accumulation of toxins




Do not use expired foods Cover and / or wrap different foods

Check the packaging

Watch out for pests, clean and sanitize regularly

Arrange the products so as to ensure good air circulation

Do not use products that look bad or smell bad Product coverage and division by types

Regular cleaning

Wash all fruits and vegetables well

Limit the time frozen foods are kept outside the freezer

Defrost the products properly (in the refrigerator or under running water) Use clean knives and cutting plates to avoid contamination

Activities Labeling of all foods with the date of acquisition and application of the rotation principle – “first entered – first written”

Coverage of raw materials and division by types Complete packaging and no visible foreign bodies

No pests in the room

The room should be dry and clean

Temperature in the refrigerator should be up to 5° C

Labeling of all foods with date and application of the “first in, first out” rotation principle

Cover all products and foods

Regular cleaning

Fruits and vegetables should be washed thoroughly and completely

The maximum time for thawing products at temperatures above 4° C is 2 hours

Complete thawing of frozen meat before cooking

Appliances must be clean, in good condition and intended for use only with ready-to-eat food

What to look for? Check the expiration dates of the products

Check the general condition of the warehouse

Inspect the packaging

Follow the reports for cleaning and pest control

Measure the temperature in the refrigerator at least twice a day

Check arrival dates

Examine the general condition of the food

Check the cleaning and pest control reports

Visual inspection

Measure the temperature of the defrosting products periodically

Other useful advice Mark the raw materials with dates

Cover or wrap the products

Rearrange the warehouse to separate the different types of raw materials

Hire a pest control company

Clean the room

Reconfigure or repair the refrigerator if necessary

Rearrange the products

Label foods and products with dates

Dispose of spoiled and expired products

Clean up

Re-wash fruits and vegetables

Dispose of frozen foods kept for more than 2 hours at temperatures above 4° C

Allow the frozen meat to thaw in the refrigerator slowly, gradually and completely

Dispose of contaminated and ready-to-eat foods

Management of stored assets

The management of stocks in the CEE includes the sequential tracking of all goods and products that enter and leave. We need to look at this process as the process of managing the money we have – we need to know how much we have to know how much to spend. The same goes for the inventory management process.

Proper inventory management in a CEE involves the creation and management of a series of processes that include procurement, delivery, warehousing and storage, monitoring and inventory analysis. Developing a complete system to monitor all this is much easier when we divide the overall process into small stages / processes to monitor, record, apply and adapt as needed.

Here are the most important ones:

  • Documentation and procedures for tracking and recording the number of goods;
  • Specifications for ordering and purchasing goods: when to order and how;
  • Procedures for receiving goods: who receives the goods and where are they stored?
  • Policies and procedures for equalization of stock discrepancies;
  • Regular analysis of stock information.

Thus you will avoid the following problems:

  • Lack of products at a time when they are needed;
  • Neglect of theft by staff;
  • Blocking cash resources in excessive stocks;
  • Waste of food;
  • Offering less fresh food;
  • Forgetting to stock a particular product;
  • Reading outdated and inaccurate financial reports;
  • The possibility of bankruptcy.

Here are some basic and useful tips and good practices for managing the process of inventory and tracking the quantities that each owner of a CEE should strive to apply in the processes of managing the storage and supply of food and products.

Tip 1: Make an inventory more often, before or at the end of the business day

A weekly inventory of your stocks is mandatory. When ordering goods weekly, it makes sense to make an inventory on the same schedule. However, other items may require daily inventory (e.g. alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, fruits and vegetables, coffee). If you are the owner of a drinking establishment (cafe, bar, etc.), where the consumption of such drinks is daily, it is good to make an inventory at the beginning and end of the working day. Important! Never make an inventory while you are in an active sales process!

Tip 2: Arrange and organize your storage facilities and equipment before making an inventory

Never make an inventory in a messy storage room. Take the time to review your supplies, dispose of expired items, and organize each shelf.

Tip 3: Use POS systems

Utilize the capabilities of your POS system for organizing and tracking stocks. Almost every CEE uses such a system, which greatly simplifies the process of inventory management by linking it to sales. You know exactly how many products you have sold per day or per month, how much assets you have in stock or how much money you have earned.

Sources and additional resources on the topic:

  • Restaurant and hotel management, First edition, 2007, Prof. Manol Ribov, Assist. Prof. Dr. Maria Stankova, Dr. Preslav Dimitrov, Lyubomira Grachka, Trakia-M Publishing House, Sofia, 2007

Materials and articles from Internet:


[2] НАРЪЧНИК за организиране на хранителни кооперативи и фермерски пазари,

The modern non-domestic catering industry relies on both well-organized processes and appropriate equipment. The availability of modern technological equipment at the place where foodstuffs and beverages are turned into ready-made food or drink is essential for optimizing the processes of food preparation, its quality and, last but not least, ensuring safety.

Classification of machines and equipment in CEE

In general, the processes of separating the preliminary processing of food products (production of semi-finished products) from the final one (production of a culinary product), as well as the separation of production from consumption, require the use of appropriate technological equipment.

Stage 1: Reception and storage – different types of trolleys, scales, dispensers, refrigerators, freezers, shelves and racks, utensils and storage devices, etc. are used here.

Stage 2: Pre-processing – vegetable processing machines, washing machines, blenders, food processors, slicing machines, mixers, etc. Machines for grinding, slicing and stirring meat are used to process meat, poultry and fish. Mixers, blenders, dough rollers, etc. are used in confectionery.

Stage 3: Heat treatment – deep fryers, toasters, ovens, convector ovens[1], pizza ovens, wood ovens, baking ovens, steam ovens, pressure cookers, microwave ovens, utensils (pot, pans, etc.).

Stage 4: Realization – utensils, appliances, heaters for plates and dishes, heating showcases for dishes and snacks, milk heaters, heated cabinets, refrigerated tables, refrigerated bars, ice cream carts, freezers, ice makers, self-service line – with various heated and cooled sections, etc.

Ancillary operations and sanitary equipment – washing machines for tableware and utensils; hot water devices, parquet cleaning machines, vacuum cleaners, floor cleaners; heating, ventilation or mechanical installations.

Let’s go back to the equipment. The term “CEE equipment” covers everything from large kitchen items such as ovens and hobs to small items such as the cutting plate behind the bar, shakers or cups. Before you start buying equipment, you will need to determine the items you need.

It is important to involve in this process your chef or a member of the team who is responsible for preparing the food / drinks in your CEE. After all, your chef and / or bartender will work with the equipment, and he / she has enough experience to determine the tools they need for each step. Play scenarios in which you simulate a busy workday to find out if the available equipment is enough to take the heavy load.

Note that this list must be constantly updated. It is very likely that you will need to purchase more equipment once you start your business.

Here is a step-by-step process for determining the needs of your restaurant equipment. We offer you a quick guide with tips for creating a list of initial equipment of the CEE:

  1. Start by creating a spreadsheet (in Excel™ or Google Sheets™) – Open your favorite spreadsheet creation tool and place each of the menu items of your CEE. Your menu is what will determine the equipment you need, and the recipes for creating the individual items on the menu are the right place to start. Go through each recipe and instead of listing each ingredient, mark each tool you need to complete it.
  2. Mark the necessary tools / equipment against each menu item. Be sure to include: 1) Utensils: pots, pans, knives, strainers, graters, measuring cups, etc. 2) Cooking equipment: deep fryers, stoves, food processors, etc. 3) Storage appliances: refrigerators, freezers.

At this stage, your electronic spreadsheet should look like this:

Spaghetti Bolognese Spatula
Spaghetti Bolognese Strainer
Spaghetti Bolognese Pan
Spaghetti Bolognese Boiling pot
Spaghetti Bolognese Cutting plate
  1. Sort the electronic spreadsheet in alphabetical order. You will find many doubled elements. Remove them. There you have your kitchen equipment list.
  2. Repeat the same process for the lobby, the bar and the commercial hall. You may sort the final lists using additional criteria such as „good to have“ and „obligatory“. These lists will help you save money from the initial purchase.

Organization and planning of CEE

The main types of premises and requirements regarding the material and technical base in the restaurants were covered in Training Module 2. Here we will present them in a little more detail in view of the need for their proper planning, maintenance and management. The facilities in the kitchens are many and varied. For example, in fast food establishments, only deep fryers are needed and disposable utensils are used.

However, restaurants with an extensive menu and many seats use a large number of cooking facilities, dishwashing facilities, etc.

Catering establishments are commercial enterprises, well equipped and specialized in public catering. Depending on its category and type, a CEE offers different types of dishes, amenities, types of service, etc. According to the category, the sites must have a certain minimum of items in the infrastructure, service, menu, etc.

In most catering establishments, there are functionally different premises (the so-called trade halls and premises), which must create conditions for welcoming, accommodating and serving visitors according to the type and category of the establishment. Basically, the functional premises in one CEE are divided into the following three sub-types – entrance unit / lobby, trade halls, service premises. Here is a little more information about each of them:

The lobby is built in size and type according to the capacity and type of the establishment, and in larger establishments, it is independent. Its premises are located so as to be convenient for the movement of visitors. The entrance unit of the establishment must be in harmony with the overall architectural style of the site. It may include one or more of the following separate rooms – ante-chamber, lobby, wardrobe and bathroom.

The trade hall in a restaurant is the place where customers are accommodated and use restaurant and entertainment services during their stay in the CEE. Therefore, each trade hall must meet a number of requirements in accordance with the type, functions, size and category of the sites. The trade halls in one CEE can be indoors – the dining hall, and outdoors – terraces, gardens. According to the shape of the trade hall, they are divided into trade halls with regular shape (rectangular, square or close to square) and irregular (round).

In addition to food and entertainment, some establishments also have special purpose rooms – for press conferences, meetings, congresses, fun games, dances, tastings, etc.

The equipment of the trade halls and premises must be, above all, functional and aesthetic. The arrangement of the trade hall is influenced by various factors, especially the category of the establishment, the main purpose and the shape of the trade hall.

The service rooms in CEEs include the waiters’ rooms (offices), units for dispensing food and beverages, units for washing tableware and utensils, the offices of the management and administrative staff, the warehouses. These premises have a complementary function to the main commercial premises of the catering establishment. In practice, there are several types of service rooms.

The waiter’s office is a service room that connects the production unit (kitchen) with the commercial area. The office is usually a rectangular room in which food and drinks are taken out for serving, used dishes and utensils are returned. The office also stores the rest of the auxiliary equipment – utensils, salt pans, ashtrays, etc. Another important feature of the office is that it cashes the ready meals and drinks before being taken into the trade hall. This is performed by means of cash registers and computers with the respective accounting program. According to the generally accepted functional requirements, the waiter’s office must be connected to the hot and cold kitchen, the buffet for drinks, the coffee bar and the dishwasher.

The food and beverage delivery units are directly connected to the waiter’s office through the so-called shuber[2], the size of which must be consistent with the type and especially the capacity of the establishment. We distinguish several types of these for delivering kitchen products and beverages: one for hot kitchen; another for cold kitchen; for the drinks store and the bar.

The unit for washing dishes and utensils is that part of the premises of CEE, which is directly connected to the waiter’s office by means of a shuber (countertop or tables made of stainless material). Here all types of dishes and utensils involved in the work process are received, washed, dried and disinfected. The dishes placed here are pre-cleaned of coarse food waste before washing.

Depending on the category of the establishment, there may be a separate office of the manager of the catering establishment (for reception of clients, requests and reservations), which may be furnished appropriately for organizing the overall work of the specific CEE (desks, sections and cabinets for document storage, computers and other equipment for implementation and organization of external and internal communication, correspondence with staff, keeping administrative records, welcoming customers and business partners).

The warehouse and production unit includes the sectors and units related to the receipt, storage and processing of food, materials and products needed for its preparation, as well as beverages. The storage unit includes the premises (storage and refrigeration) for separate (or joint, as far as possible) storage of food and beverages. These rooms are usually located at or below ground level in order to avoid light and temperature effects.

The production unit includes the premises in which the preliminary processing of food products and materials takes place. This part of the CEE includes:

  • Preparatory and washing rooms – they host the cutting, slicing, sorting and preparation of meat and meat products, as well as the preparation of desserts and bakery products;
  • Hot kitchen – the largest of the service rooms where the process of turning foodstuffs into dishes takes place. Due to the specifics and orientation of this module, this part of the service rooms in CEE is not described in detail;
  • Cold kitchen – a room that is furnished with refrigeration appliances and equipment, as well as food robots for cutting, mixing, blending and cutting food products.

Each production room must meet certain sanitary requirements. The main requirement in the design of production premises in CEE is that these premises are connected to sewerage and water supply. The floors should be covered with terracotta tiles with the proper displacement towards the siphons. High-efficiency ventilation facilities must be located in the rooms of the hot kitchen, and the area must be designed in accordance with the number of seats in the trade hall.

Preparation of dishes and drinks in the catering establishments

The process of preparation of meals (drinks) in restaurants usually goes through two main stages – primary processing of products – cold stage, and secondary (heat) processing of products. Here is a brief information about the different stages of food preparation, as well as basic characteristics and techniques for preparing mixed drinks.

It is important to note that the cooking technology must follow good manufacturing practices, part of the HACCP system. The aim is to prevent contamination and contagion of the products. The catering establishments have a great variety of food on the menu – many types of incoming products and ready meals, which determines the need for broad and comprehensive control of the entire process of food preparation. HACCP is described in detail in Topic 5 of this training module.

Preliminary processing of the foodstuffs

According to the definitions, the preliminary processing of food products consists of separating the non-food and waste parts of the products, cleaning, grinding, cutting, stirring, etc.

Pre-treatment must be carried out in compliance with standard hygiene requirements. Here are some basic tips to keep in mind when processing food:

  • Avoid prolonged soaking, which leads to the loss of water-soluble vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates.
  • In some vegetables (cabbage, mushrooms) and fruits (cherries, sour cherries, plums), there may be small worms that are removed and the products are soaked for 30 minutes in a 15-30% solution of salt.
  • Fruits and vegetables are recommended to be eaten mostly raw, in their natural form – uncut or in the form of salads (to prevent nutrient loss).
  • Meat and fish should be defrosted slowly, at room temperature, not in hot water or in the oven.
  • Frozen vegetable semi-finished products are placed directly in hot water without defrosting first.
  • The liquid part of the sterilized cans is not discarded because it contains a large part of the water-soluble vitamins and mineral elements of the products.

Heat processing

Cooking is the art of preparing food for consumption. The term is often used in a narrower sense as the heat treatment of food in order to change its taste, structure, appearance or nutritional qualities.

Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely around the world, from baking food on an open fire to using electric appliances, baking in different types of ovens, reflecting unique environmental, economic and cultural traditions and trends. The methods for heat treatment of food must be gentle and preserve their useful ingredients as much as possible. For this purpose, the main types of heat treatment of food include boiling, baking, frying and others.

Baking is a process in which the food product is placed under the straight impact of a direct heat source – open fire, electric wire, heated walls, etc. It is believed that it best preserves the nutritional qualities of the processed product.

When frying, the prepared product is processed in very hot vegetable or animal fat. Among the main disadvantages is the high level of fat in the final dish, which is why it is considered one of the unhealthiest methods of food preparation.

Boiling is a basic process in which the product is subjected to heat treatment in a highly heated non-greasy liquid (at the beginning or end of the heating). The liquid is usually water, broth, wine, sometimes milk. It is used mainly in the preparation of soups and hot drinks – tea, coffee, cocoa, and canned food. In other cases, boiling is a preliminary process.

Final treatment

In the final phase of the process of food preparation, there are the operations of arranging and delivering the finished product for serving. The arranging and serving of the prepared food, expressed in its portioning, placing in dishes and serving, are extremely important for the overall evaluation and experience of the customer. Aesthetically designed dishes attract attention and bring pleasure. More information about the process of arranging and serving food is presented in Topic 6.

Main types of drinks at the CEE

In addition to the classic restaurants, which offer a wide and varied range of high-quality food, the so-called drinking establishments (café-aperitif, brewery, winery, etc.) and bars (cocktail bar, coffee bar, disco, piano bar, etc.) offer a wide range of alcoholic and soft drinks and snacks to go with them, as well as hot drinks, nuts, confectionery, a limited range of culinary products.

The criteria for classifying the beverages used in these CEEs vary from country to country, but follow a generally similar division model. Depending on the alcohol content, beverages are divided into two major groups:

  • Alcoholic beverages – Beverages that contain alcohol – 1-55% depending on the type of drink;
  • Soft drinks – Beverages that do not contain alcohol;

Alcoholic beverages are divided into five categories:

  • Beer
  • Wines
  • High-spirit beverages
  • Liqueurs
  • Others

Mixed drinks (also known as cocktails) are characterized by a great variety in terms of the products used to prepare them. In order to facilitate their recognition, learning and preparation by bartenders, they are grouped by characteristic features for easier learning, recognition, preparation and offering, as follows:

  • by serving temperature – cold and hot;
  • by alcohol content – alcoholic and non-alcoholic;
  • by quantity of the ready mixed drink – short (80 cl) and long (200 cl);
  • according to the main alcoholic beverage – with vodka, gin, cognac, champagne, rum, wine, beer, whiskey, coffee.

The common names of the cocktail groups are known by bartenders in English because they are known all over the world.

Preparation of mixed drinks

There are different techniques for mixing cocktails. Although the methods of mixing drinks are too many to be described in one place, there are several basic methods that underlie cocktail mixing. The more popular ones are:

  • BUILD – is the mixing of the drink by successively adding the drinks.
  • STIR – the stirring is a method of mixing by stirring drinks with a bar spoon.
  • SHAKE – used with ingredients that cannot be easily mixed (milk, eggs, cream, fruit juices, etc.).
  • BLEND – when fresh fruit or “sorbet” style is used as the main ingredients needed for the preparation of the cocktail drink, then it is good to use an electric blender. The blending of the ingredients is done with crushed ice and the consistency is poured directly into the glass without being filtered.
  • LAYER – that means layering one beverage on top of another without mixing so that the layers stand out. The glass in which the cocktail will be served is held at an angle and the drinks are carefully and slowly poured over the walls.

Sources and additional resources on the topic:

  • Restaurant and hotel management, First edition, 2007, Prof. Manol Ribov, Assist. Prof. Dr. Maria Stankova, Dr. Preslav Dimitrov, Lyubomira Grachka, Trakia-M Publishing House, Sofia, 2007
  • ORDINANCE on the requirements for categorization of accommodation, catering and entertainment establishments
  • Aleksieva, Y., Stamov – Serving and bar tending, S., Matkom Publishing House, 2003;
  • Food & beverage Training Manual Handbook, 2009.
  • Rossoter, Ken – Bar tending guidebook, 2014

Materials and articles from Internet:


[1] The main feature of convector ovens is the air, which drives the heat with the help of a fan. This ensures a constant and even temperature in the working space of the oven as the warm air cooks the food. The result is a perfectly cooked product without the need to move individual trays or turn the food over during baking.

[2] A shelf for delivering ready meals to be served and collecting used cutlery

If you ask the owner or manager of a catering establishment – a classic or specialty restaurant, coffee shop, bar or nightclub, almost all of them will share that their main concern or what “keeps them awake in the evening” are the problems associated with finding and retaining staff.

Although tourism is a priority industry for many countries in the Balkans, there is a growing shortage of qualified staff. In addition, with the opening of new restaurants, the modernization of hotels, restaurants and bars and the opening of new travel agencies, the demand for qualified staff is growing, while the requirements for the preparation of personnel in the main branches of the tourism industry are constantly increasing and updating.

According to the generally accepted definitions regarding staff, the people participating in the different stages of the overall process of customer service in the establishment are called service personnel of the CEE. Catering is one of the tourist activities in which the service and its quality depend almost entirely on the service staff. In addition to the service staff, the entire process of organizing the work in a catering establishment also includes administrative and managerial staff (manager, deputy manager), as well as additional personnel – accounting, kitchen – production and operational staff.

In Training Module 2: Restaurant Management, we focused in detail on the different categories of staff in the catering establishments, and especially in the restaurant, where we have a coincidence of the making of kitchen products with the time of its consumption. In this topic, we will look at some key aspects related to the recruitment and management of human resources in the CEE.

If you are planning to open your own catering establishment (restaurant, coffee shop, fast food, etc.) and have experience in the industry or people management, you are probably familiar with the process of hiring staff. However, keep in mind that finding staff is just one of the challenges you will have to deal with in the start-up process.

Imagine finding and hiring staff in your future or existing CEE is like putting together a puzzle. In this case, the puzzle you will have to arrange will have small pieces, the picture will be colorful and complex, and the lack of just one piece would compromise everything.

Creating, developing and retaining a workforce is a complex process that is nevertheless based on two simple goals: 1) Finding the right people; and 2) Creating the right environment and culture to keep them. In the following lines, we will focus on some main challenges related to achieving these two seemingly simple goals:

  • What are the main categories of staff you need to hire and what qualities to look for in candidates for each of them;
  • How to prepare yourself for the selection;
  • Where to look?
  • How to keep them?
  • What are your obligations as an employer?

Categories and positions of staff at the CEE

So, what are the main positions you need to hire for the needs of your CEE? We have already listed the main categories in Training Module 2, Topic 6: Restaurant staff. However, it is important to know that the staff and positions you will find depend on the concept, purpose and size of the CEE you are planning. Whether you are big or small, you will first need to identify the specific needs of staff, both for the production part (kitchen, warehouses) and in the commercial part (entrance, trade hall, etc.). It is important to be aware of which positions must be taken by people with experience and which may accept staff without experience, but with the desire and motivation to learn and develop. Here’s what you need to know about each of the most common positions at CEEs:

Personnel at the trade parts of the CEE

As a restaurant manager or owner, it is important to know that the staff who serve customers in the commercial area of ​​your restaurant or bar should include people who are friendly, kind and have good customer service skills. They need to know the menu very well in order to be able to competently offer and recommend food and drinks, to deal with customer complaints and to contribute to their well-being. If the concept and specifics of the CEE require it, it is good for the staff who work directly with the client to know the source of food, details related to production, their origin, etc. This is especially important when working with local farms and producers, offering homemade food, a healthy menu, etc. If you use modern technologies for collecting and processing orders (phones or tablets), it is good for the staff to have basic knowledge in this area. Here are some basic qualities of each of the main positions in the commercial part that you should look for and with which you should not compromise in the process of hiring staff:

  • Restaurant manager – management of people and teams, organizational skills, training and experience in the field of CEE and / or hospitality.
  • Waiter – your face in front of customers, skills to perform multiple tasks, friendliness, ability to work in a team, motivated; experience is not required, except when the concept and reputation of the CEE require it.
  • Bartender – your face and key figure behind the bar; funny and friendly, excellent communication skills, diligent appearance, skills for preparing and serving drinks, participates in creating the menu, it is good to have experience. Compromises on the listed qualities are possible when the bar is not an important element of the concept of the CEE, but rather plays a supporting role.

Personnel at the production parts of the CEE

Your team “behind the screen” in the production part must work in absolute synchrony and constant communication with the team from the sales part. The staff here must be able to withstand the dynamic and demanding environment in which most CEEs operate.

While the hidden part of many CEEs also includes non-kitchen positions such as office staff (accountants, administrators) and serving staff (cleaners, dishwashers, etc.), here we will focus on the main positions that are concentrated in the production unit of the CEE, namely the kitchen:

  • Chef – participates in the process of creating and optimizing / developing the menu; hires and manages the rest of the kitchen personnel; experience is very important because a large part of the image of the CEE is built on the cuisine they offer.
  • Assistant chef (Sous-chef) – the “right hand” of the chef; former professional experience is an advantage, but professional qualification / education is also sufficient; organizational skills and teamwork; motivation and a responsible attitude to the work process are a key factor. The presence of an assistant chef is not necessary for small CEEs.
  • Dishwasher / hygienist – no need for experience, but motivation and responsible attitude to work.

Depending on the concept of your CEE, you may have additional jobs such as sommelier, butcher, pastry chef and many others.

Selection and hiring of staff

Staffing in a new restaurant means starting from scratch. You will need to be diligent in selecting the best possible team, as they will determine if your vision will become a reality. You need people who are committed to your vision, goals and values. The great staff at the restaurant have some common characteristics that make them suitable for the culture of the industry. Skills can be taught, but internal values cannot. Here’s what to look for when hiring staff for your catering establishment.

Figure 3: Main qualities and characteristics of CEE personnel

Figure 3 presents the most important basic and additional characteristics and skills that you should look for in the recruitment process for your CEE. In addition, it is a good idea to look for additional information about the specifics of the labor market in your locality or region, which could better guide you about what to expect in the subsequent search process.

Now that you have identified the specific positions you will need and are aware of the basic skills and qualities that employees need to have on each of them, you need to begin the real process of finding people. Where to start?

There are several main sources that you can use in the process of finding staff, which are presented below. Of course, this list is not exhaustive, but it will give you the initial guidance in case you are facing this challenge for the first time.

  • Recommendations – the best way to hire staff are personal and professional recommendations. Studies show that this is one of the most efficient and fast ways to hire staff. In addition, referral employees are much more motivated and more likely to stay with you longer. Therefore, ask relatives and acquaintances from your personal and professional circle.
  • Internet – in the global network, you can find many sites and platforms where people are looking for work. You can also visit the recently popular forums and specialized groups in social networks, in which people with interest in professional realization in the industry communicate.
  • Social media – If you have a social media account, you can post job ads and vacancies. Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter have sharing features that allow people to share with each other. If you want your post to reach more people, you can invest in an ad campaign on social media. More about digital marketing in the field of CEE can be found in Training Module 2: Restaurant Management and Training Module 5: Innovative tips and practices for business management in the field of tourism.
  • Headhunting – Headhunting is a practice typical of people who, due to cultural characteristics or level of historical development, have killed other people and taken their heads as a trophy. The modern meaning of a bounty hunter is associated with a kind of narrow specialization of recruitment professionals, who are looking for certain people with high qualifications and proven abilities for a specific position (usually high rank) upon request. This type of search for suitable candidates is applicable to key positions, such as managers and chefs.

Keeping and motivating employees

Keeping and motivating employees is one of the best long-term strategies for minimizing labor costs. Investing in training and keeping current employees will help you avoid making more significant costs, like for the training of new employees – it is better to invest these funds in loyal and promising employees. How to find the optimal ratio between the number of employees, work efficiency and staff satisfaction? Here are some practical tips.

Good pay and a fair work schedule: It sounds trite, but it is one of the most certain prerequisites for employee keeping and motivation. Everyone has bills to pay and their own life challenges. Create fair policies for tips distribution, payment calculation and additional material incentives (so-called bonuses). Avoid sudden changes in the schedule, unless they are necessary (e.g. for health reasons). No one is happy to be suddenly called to work on his / her day off.

Rest and leave: Lack of a proper balance between professional and personal life can lead to negative physical and mental health problems. Lack of balance and conflicts between work and life responsibilities leads to high levels of stress, and hence to poor health, lack of energy and motivation to work. It is important to comply with existing legislation and personal preferences. Different countries have different requirements. The regulations may also depend on age, with young workers (aged between 15 and 18) working with the express consent of their parents and specialized labor authorities, strictly observing working hours and the number of breaks.

Professional development: According to research in the non-domestic catering industry, 40% of employees who receive little or no training at their jobs, leave during the first year. Professional development should be a priority from the moment you hire new staff. Staff training increases the chances of keeping them and improves commitment to the company. By investing in the professional development of your employees, you get more qualified, better educated and motivated staff. Currently, there are many opportunities for internships, career development and professional qualifications, which are funded by the European Union and implemented through various programs, projects and NGOs. These courses can be for both new and existing staff.

Incentives and bonuses: While it may sound like a cliché, incentives and rewards increase the engagement, motivation and productivity of your employees, which means you also get an extra bonus for your business. Here are some ideas in this direction: Stimulus-based attendance incentives for employees with little or no delays and absences. Individual bonuses for those who do best in their daily tasks, as well as for those who receive the most positive feedback from your customers. Discounts on consumption at the CEE. Preferential choice of shifts for the most engaged employees. Mandatory annual events to increase team spirit (banquets, parties, team building).

Sources and additional resources on the topic:

Ensuring food safety is key to any CEE. Every site – from the smallest stands and showcases for food sale, to the largest – restaurants and workshops for food production, requires the development and implementation of a food safety management system. The same goes for temporary and seasonal sites, even those that only work during fairs and other multi-day events. In Bulgaria, as a member of the European Union, every company offering, trading or producing food products is obliged to have a HACCP system or procedures in place in accordance with its principles.

What is HACCP?

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a system securing the safety of foods at their production and distribution.

Established in 1959 as a food control system at NASA, HACCP is a risk management methodology used by food production and marketing operators to control food safety hazards and reduce them to acceptable levels of risk.

As noted, the application scope of the HACCP system is quite wide – from production to supply, including extraction and production, production and processing, trade, supply, storage and transport.

The HACCP system is applied to food producers, catering companies, restaurants, hotels, traders. It controls and eliminates possible hazards in processing, production, supply, transportation of food products. It is a set of processes in which techniques, proper personal hygiene, critical point control (CCP) procedures, record keeping and storage are applied. All this gives you the confidence that you produce and offer safe food.

The HACCP system is not limited to its introduction. It is a continuous and dynamic process.

A necessary and sufficient condition for starting and developing the HACCP plan is that your site has implemented and is working with Good Practices. The handbook of good practices is a basic document for each company in the food industry and is the basis for the construction and operation of the HACCP system. Before proceeding with the development of the core part of the HACCP plan, we will focus on some preliminary steps that need to be taken.

Advantages of the HACCP system

The HACCP system is a requirement for food producers and traders registered under the Food Act and has the following advantages:

  • A systematic approach covering all aspects of food safety from raw materials to final consumption.
  • Ensuring a more efficient and effective management, as the storage of records helps to examine whether you comply with the requirements of the legislation governing the production and supply of food and the requirements of the unified European legislation.
  • Providing a competitive advantage to the business entity.
  • Increasing confidence in product safety by identifying every possible risk.
  • HACCP is a preventive system that replaces the traditional retrospective quality control.
  • Increases the efficiency of quality systems by focusing on the critical points of the processes.
  • HACCP is profitable and does not lead to losses and dispenses.
  • Facilitates legal checks.
  • HACCP is internationally recognized as the most effective system for controlling diseases caused by foods.
  • Complements and strengthens other systems such as ISO 9001: 2000.
  • Demonstrates the responsibility of business entities in terms of food safety.

Stages of the HACCP system development

Stage 1. Forming a food safety team

The first step is organizational. The food safety team can consist of different number of people. It’s all in your hands and it depends on your judgment to choose the best prepared people for the purpose. These may be the people with appropriate education in the catering / food industry. They must have skills and experience, they can be chefs, technologists and others. Of these people joining the team, there should be one Team Leader. There are no exact recipes for his/her choice, but it is right to be a professional with a long experience or the most experienced, or the most educated, or the one who will have the task to direct the actions of the team and bear responsibility.

Stage 2. Product description

At this stage, you must describe in detail the products that will be offered in your CEE. The description shall include information on the product name, main ingredients, physical properties, handling, packaging, storage, shelf life and conditions of use.

Stage 3: Defining the expected consumer or user of food

The categorization of the site also determines the expected consumers. This stage is so important that it helps to identify the target group of consumers and potential hazards in the consumption of the product / products, as well as vulnerable consumers. At this stage, the probable misuse of the product by the user is described.

Stage 4: Drawing a diagram of the main activities

he diagram shows all the stages involving the process of creating the product(s), which must also be described in the scope of the HACCP plan. The main goal is to show where food hazards can be reduced, increased or introduced in the course of the processes. The identification of specific steps gives a clear idea of the beginning, content and end of the processes – from the entrance to the exit of the food chain in the site. Figures 4 and 5 show examples of such a diagram.

Figure 4: Diagram of a production process with thermal treatment in a coffee shop

Figure 5: Diagram of a production process without thermal treatment in a café-bar

Stage 5: Inspection of the Diagram of the production process on the spot.

In the final stage, an inspection is made of each step and activity carried out on the site where the technological process of production takes place, in the kitchen, incl. the equipment and personnel.

Following the preliminary 5 steps of the HACCP plan, we move on to the next stages, accompanying its further development. They represent the basic principles of HACCP.

Basic principle of HACCP

The development, implementation and maintenance of the 7 principles of HACCP in the activities of the CEE is unthinkable without the proper functioning of the Plan. They are building the foundation on which the HACCP plan will step. The more complete and accurate these programs are, the easier it will be to implement the 7 principles of HACCP.

  1. First principle: Identification of potential hazards that need to be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.
  2. Second principle: Identification of critical control points in the technological process, the control of which ensures the prevention, elimination or reduction of hazards to acceptable levels.
  3. Third principle: Defining critical limits for each critical control point that distinguishing the acceptable from the unacceptable levels for preventing, eliminating or reducing hazards.
  4. Fourth principle: Defining and implementing effective procedures for the monitoring of critical control points.
  5. Fifth principle: Identifying corrective actions when monitoring shows that a critical control point is out of control.
  6. Sixth principle: Establishing procedures for regular verification of the effectiveness of measures to implement those principles.
  7. Seventh principle: Determining the documents and records which, according to the nature and size of the enterprise, confirm the effectively operating principles.

Each principle contains specific instructions about how to act against the hazards identified. Specific tools are applied to each principle. The main advantages of HACCP for the CEE can be summarized as follows:

  • Saves money to your business in the long run;
  • Food safety standards are raised;
  • Guarantees that you meet all the requirements of the law;
  • Gives you good organization for the production, storage, distribution and sale of safe food;
  • Offers good staff organization, encouraging teamwork and increasing efficiency;
  • You will have proper protection in court.

In summary, HACCP is a risk management methodology applied by catering establishments to control food safety hazards and reduce them to acceptable levels of risk.

Usually, HACCP is introduced by specialized consulting companies and organizations that have developed systems and plans according to the needs of different categories of sites offering catering services (café-aperitif, fast food, pastry shop, classic restaurant, restaurant with national cuisine, Chinese restaurant, Italian restaurant, pizzeria, bistro, pavilion, brewery, cafe, doner, coffee shop, cocktail bar, lobby bar, snack bar, etc.).

The time for developing the documentation is different and depends on the company you work with, but usually varies from 2 to 5 working days. In some cases, when the site is small, it is possible for the owner to independently develop a system under the guidance of an expert or consultant.

Sources and additional resources on the topic:

  • Guidelines for the implementation of procedures based on HACCP principles, and to support the application of HACCP principles in certain food activities, Directorate-General for Preservation of Health and Consumers, 2015

Materials and articles from Internet:

In the final part of the training module, we will briefly present the main specifics of the organization of services in the CEE, which should be known by any owner, manager or potential entrepreneur who has decided to take the path of offering non-domestic catering services. In this topic we will look at some of the main specifics of the organization and technology of service and nutrition during the three main meals – breakfast, lunch and dinner. Finally, we will briefly present information on the more specific food preparation techniques that are offered in higher-end CEEs.

Organization and preparation of breakfast

Breakfast is the first meal of the day. Depending on the country and customs, breakfast is served between 6 and 11 in the morning. Depending on the concept, specifics and menu of the CEE in question, the offering and arrangement of ready meals and drinks for breakfast can be done in several ways:

Arranging and presenting breakfast buffet-style

In this way of offering breakfast in the trade hall of the CEE or a separate place, a large table is arranged and most of the dishes are displayed on trays, in plates, bowls and other pots. When placing the table in the room, it is very important to provide its “representative visibility” and provide enough space for guests and service staff to approach the table. Guests serve themselves by placing selected items in plates which have been prepared at end of the buffet table, and sit in random places of their choice in the hall.

Arranging and presenting breakfast at a mobile buffet

Breakfast is available in a number of mobile buffets for hot or cold food. Cutlery and crockery are loaded on a separate table. Guests are self-serviced by walking around the buffets. The chefs and waiters take care of loading the buffets and serving the dishes.

Arranging breakfast without a prior menu

The arranging of breakfast without a pre-specified menu is carried out by cleaning the tables on which the guests will sit and covering them with suitable tablecloths, after which they are stuffed with utensils and dishes. The following popular types of breakfast can be distinguished here:

  • Continental breakfast (also called European) – based on the Mediterranean tradition in continental Europe for a snack. It consists of toasted bread, roll, croissant, pretzel, fried eggs, pastries, jam, cold soft drinks (orange juice), milk and coffee.
  • English breakfast – quite heavy, with a lot of fat. In the UK, the classic breakfast includes bacon, sausages, eggs and drinks – usually tea or coffee.
  • Traditional Russian breakfast includes porridge of all kinds of cereals: oats, wheat, rice, millet and buckwheat (often with butter, sometimes with the addition of dried fruits or nuts); cottage cheese, white cheese, pancakes, buns, cheese pastries, casserole and dumplings from dough, scrambled eggs, omelet, soft-boiled eggs.

Optional serving

The so-called “A la carte” or individual order is the provision and serving of breakfast of choice from several options or pre-designed menus. Some restaurants offer a choice of pre-designed breakfast options (usually around 3-4), which include combinations of different amounts and assortments of food and beverages.

Organization and preparation of lunch

Lunch is the second meal of the day. In most countries around the world, lunch is between 12 noon and 3 pm. For many peoples and cultures, lunch is the most important and basic meal of the day. In most countries, it includes several dishes such as soup, main course and dessert. The organization of lunch is determined by the form of service, the concept of the catering establishment and the menu offered.

Arranging lunch buffet-style

When offering lunch at a buffet table, the following elements of the overall service are important – table setting, loading and serving. It is important that the buffet is positioned correctly and conveniently for customers. If your CEE has many customers for lunch, it is good to arrange several tables by dividing the dishes. After their arranging and situating, the tables are loaded with food and drinks placed in appropriate containers and equipment. Guest service is partial. The waiters load, reload the buffet and serve out the utensils left by the ready customers.

Arranging lunch through mobile buffets

The display and offering of food and drinks can be done through the so-called mobile buffets – pieces of heating and cooling equipment, which are separate modules or “lines” for heating or cooling by steam or “water bath”, capable of maintaining a uniform temperature of food and beverages during consumption (breakfast, lunch or dinner). Arrangements for lunch are most often determined by the profile of the establishment and its category.

A la carte – without a pre-specified menu

This type of arranging and organizing lunch is suitable for lower and middle category CEEs. Similar to serving breakfast, refilling is planned based on the dishes on the menu. Arrangement is traditional – only with basic utensils. In the higher category CEEs, they use double utensils, several types of cups and an appetizer (toast with butter).

Organization and preparation of dinner

Dinner is the last meal of the day. Depending on the country, climate and traditions, dinner can be between 6 and 11 o’clock in the evening. In some places, dinner is the main meal of the day, in others it is very light. It consists mainly of meat – beef, chicken, pork or fish garnished with vegetables, rice, pasta and sauce. Many people prefer to dine at a restaurant and because dinner is in the hours after work, it can last longer.

Various alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages can be added to it. Forms of dinner service do not differ from those of lunch and include organization and service through buffets (mobile or not) or optional menu service (a la carte). The only difference is in the quantity and range of food and beverages offered.

Portioning of dishes – slicing, flambeing, filleting

It is often that one finds on the Internet – in specialized forums or pages related to cooking – terms such as slicing, flambéing, filleting, portioning, etc. All these terms are the basis of cooking, which we have already written about in Topic 3.

Here we will present the most popular specialized demonstrations for arranging the dishes in front of the client’s table, which are offered mainly in higher-class CEEs. However, more and more of them, offering family specialties and home-cooked food, present similar demonstrations, which attract the attention of guests and improve the overall experience. The main techniques for specialized portioning of dishes include slicing, flambéing and filleting.

Slicing or boning

Slicing requires a very good knowledge of the body structure of animals and skills for working in front of an audience. Slicing includes procedures for cutting, boning and aesthetic portioning of poultry, mammal or fish meat. Chickens, ducks, geese, whole or parts of pigs, lambs, calves, deer, etc. are most often sliced in front of the guests.

Slicing is usually done on an auxiliary table or a specialized trolley equipped with the following containers and tools:

  • Specialized cutting board;
  • Cutting utensils – knives for slicing and filleting, fork for slicing;
  • Heating plates;
  • Bell-type dish lids;
  • Waste bowl;
  • Mandatory heated portion plates.

The slicing process is specific to different types of meat and fish. According to the established practices, the following stages in the slicing process are to be observed:

  • The product is shown to all guests;
  • The meat is moved from the plate or the bell on the cutting board, the fork being placed under it and the knife is supported on top;
  • Cutting is done at an angle of 45 degrees to the meat;
  • The individual pieces are placed on the hot plates;
  • With the help of tongs, the portions are distributed in the plates and served to the guests;
  • The used equipment is collected and the table and the board are cleaned; the stroller is retracted.


Flambéing aims to increase the taste of flambéed dishes and products, as well as to achieve an attractive effect for customers. Certain dishes, desserts and fruits with a suitable high-alcohol beverage are suitable for demonstrating the flambéing technique.

Flambéing is a relatively complex process that must be practiced by trained personnel. Here is what you will need to achieve the desired effect:

  • Service table or trolley for flambéing
  • Side table with the necessary equipment (pans, flambéing utensils, plates for consumption)
  • Hob (electric or gas) and / or spirit lamp
  • Suitable alcoholic beverage.

The process of flambéing in the trade hall includes the following stages:

  • Preparation – the necessary equipment for flambéing is prepared and taken to the trade hall. All elements are inspected in advance. The side table or trolley is loaded with the necessary products and dishes.
  • Flambéing – the hotplates are switched on, the oil or vegetable fat are heated in the pan; the ingredients are poured with flaming alcohol. The burning process is stopped.
  • Serving the dish in a suitable container.

Flambéing is suitable for meats (fillets, squares, steaks, etc.), desserts (pancakes, omelets, pastries, etc.) and various types of fruit.


Filleting can be defined as an effective procedure for professional peeling, carving and slicing of fruit or fish before the clients of the CEE. In terms of fruit, very few establishments practice fruit filleting, as the technique is specific and little known among most professionals in the industry.

On the Internet (and in particular YouTube), you can find many videos demonstrating the slicing, flambéing and filleting of various types of raw and prepared foodstuffs, foods and dishes.

Sources and additional resources on the topic:

  • Restaurant and hotel management, First edition, 2007, Prof. Manol Ribov, Assist. Prof. Dr. Maria Stankova, Dr. Preslav Dimitrov, Lyubomira Grachka, Trakia-M Publishing House, Sofia, 2007
  • Restaurant management, Dimcho Todorov, Matkom Publishing House, 2010

Materials and articles from Internet:

  • Dinner – short information

  • Slicing for beginners

  • Flambeing of dishes and desserts

  • Filleting of fish

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Welcome to your M3 Food and drinks management_EN

1) Which are the main nutrients?
2) Unhealthy eating leads most often to the development of:
3) Which is the main energy source for the human body?
4) Trans-fats are usually found in:
5) Which is the ‘new religion’ according to many studies?
6) What are the Rainforest Alliance, Without GMO, and Carbon Neutral?
7) Using golden or silver utensils when serving various dishes is forbidden and considered a bad taste by:
8) Who is usually responsible for the supply of food and drinks at the CEE?
9) Which of the following are among the basic principles of buying raw materials and products for the needs of a CEE?
10) What is SFSC?
11) In order to be economically efficient, the supply process has to be:
12) The main stages of the supply process are:
13) Which are the main advantages of CEEs working ‘from farm to table’?
14) What do suppliers of alcoholic and soft drinks offer for free?
15) How many suppliers is good to start your CEE with?
16) What products are stored at -18°С in low-temperature freezers or fridges?
17) What degrees must we cool processed food to, before returning it to the fridge?
18) The ready-to-eat foods are stored separately from:
19) At what periods is it advisable to check stored assets and make an inventory?
20) Which of the following presents the right sequence of stages at a CEE?
21) Dish-washing machines are part of:
22) Which of the following is true?
23) The units for taking dishes and drinks out of the kitchen and ready to be served are called:
24) How many stages does the process of culinary products and drinks preparation have at CEEs:
25) Heat processing of food has the purpose of improving/changing:
26) Mixed drinks are divided in two main types by the quantity of the ready product:
27) The staff and positions in a CEE depend primarily on:
28) Manager, waiter and bartender are positions based at:
29) „Sous-chef“ is:
30) Which of the following methods of staff selection is most effective according to the established practices in the industry:
31) Which of the following statements about keeping staff in the CEE is correct:
32) HACCP is:
33) Which of the following is not a stage of HACCP development?
34) The first principle of HACCP is:
35) In which of the following cases can HACCP be introduced independently?
36) The existence of a working HACCP system would secure a credible defense in court in regard to work accidents – true or false?
37) Which of the following can be applied during all three main mealtimes?
38) Dinner service types are no different than lunch ones:
39) Flambeing is unsuitable for the following dishes:
40) Which of the following tools/utensils is not used in slicing:

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